queen elizabeth of englandJanuary 17, 2021
" The princesses stayed at Balmoral Castle, Scotland, until Christmas 1939, when they moved to Sandringham House, Norfolk. ) Sandringham House and Balmoral Castle are personally owned by the Queen. When she toured Canada and visited President Harry S. Truman in Washington, D.C., in October 1951, her private secretary, Martin Charteris, carried a draft accession declaration in case the King died while she was on tour. Elizabeth I was a long-ruling queen of England, governing with relative stability and prosperity for 44 years. Elizabeth Tudor grew up to become Elizabeth I, queen of England, the most famous monarch in the history of the country. Of … Elizabeth I was undisputedly one of the greatest monarchs of England who ruled the country from 1558 to 1603. 2–3; Lacey, pp. 109–110, Bond, p. 96; Marr, p. 257; Pimlott, p. 427; Shawcross, p. 110, Hardman, p. 137; Roberts, pp. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Coup leader Sitiveni Rabuka deposed Ganilau and declared Fiji a republic.  In the late 1960s, attempts to portray a more modern image of the monarchy were made in the television documentary Royal Family and by televising Prince Charles's investiture as Prince of Wales. She was delivered by Caesarean section at her maternal grandfather's London house: 17 Bruton Street, Mayfair. Mary was considered by many to be the heir to the English crown, being the granddaughter of Henry VIII's elder sister, Margaret.  Consequently, Elizabeth's father became king, and she became heir presumptive. , In September 1939, Britain entered the Second World War. When in conversation with the Queen, the practice is to address her initially as Your Majesty and thereafter as Ma'am. She presided over an era of economic and political expansion, which lay the framework for Britain’s later dominance as a world power. Queen Elizabeth II greeting children at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center during a visit to the United States, May 2007. , The Queen surpassed her great-great-grandmother, Queen Victoria, to become the longest-lived British monarch on 21 December 2007, and the longest-reigning British monarch and longest-reigning queen regnant and female head of state in the world on 9 September 2015. I remember lines of unknown people linking arms and walking down Whitehall, all of us just swept along on a tide of happiness and relief. Elizabeth’s ascension to the throne required a great deal of good … The queen took the throne at …  The involvement of younger members of the royal family in the charity game show It's a Royal Knockout in 1987 was ridiculed. She very nearly wasn’t queen at all. She is the longest-lived and longest-reigning British monarch.  In public, she took to wearing mostly solid-colour overcoats and decorative hats, which allow her to be seen easily in a crowd. Elizabeth II is the current Queen of the United Kingdom and Head of the Commonwealth. , In November 1997, the Queen and her husband held a reception at Banqueting House to mark their golden wedding anniversary. As part of her “Golden Jubilee,” events were held throughout the Commonwealth, including several days of festivities in London. 13–15; Pimlott, pp. Lifestyle. How The Queen and Members of The Royal Family celebrate . Early in 1947 Princess Elizabeth went with the king and queen to South Africa. In 1965, however, the Rhodesian Prime Minister, Ian Smith, in opposition to moves towards majority rule, unilaterally declared independence while expressing "loyalty and devotion" to Elizabeth.  The Sunday Times Rich List 2020 estimated her personal wealth at £350 million, making her the 372nd richest person in the UK. https://www.natgeokids.com/uk/discover/history/monarchy/elizabeth-i-facts Elizabeth II, in full Elizabeth Alexandra Mary, officially Elizabeth II, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of her other realms and territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith, (born April 21, 1926, London, England), queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from February 6, 1952. Elizabeth II, in full Elizabeth Alexandra Mary, officially Elizabeth II, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of her other realms and territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith, (born April 21, 1926, London, England), queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from February 6, 1952. Britain's Queen Elizabeth II, accompanied by her husband, Prince Philip, waving to well-wishers as she rides to St. Paul's Cathedral for a service celebrating her Golden Jubilee in 2002. , With Elizabeth's accession, it seemed probable the royal house would bear the Duke of Edinburgh's name, in line with the custom of a wife taking her husband's surname on marriage. During the tour, in a broadcast to the British Commonwealth on her 21st birthday, she made the following pledge: "I declare before you all that my whole life, whether it be long or short, shall be devoted to your service and the service of our great imperial family to which we all belong.  Lord Altrincham's accusation in 1957 that her speeches sounded like those of a "priggish schoolgirl" was an extremely rare criticism. She feared that the French planned to invade England and put her Catholic cousin Mary, Queen of Scots, on the throne. Heath only resigned when discussions on forming a coalition foundered, after which the Queen asked the Leader of the Opposition, Labour's Harold Wilson, to form a government. Beginning in November 1953 the queen and the duke of Edinburgh made a six-month round-the-world tour of the Commonwealth, which included the first visit to Australia and New Zealand by a reigning British monarch. , The absence of a formal mechanism within the Conservative Party for choosing a leader meant that, following Eden's resignation, it fell to the Queen to decide whom to commission to form a government. After her father died in 1952, Eliz… When her father died in February 1952, Elizabeth became head of the Commonwealth and queen regnant of seven independent Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan, and Ceylon. They received 2,500 wedding gifts from around the world. All these children have the surname “of Windsor,” but in 1960 Elizabeth decided to create the hyphenated name Mountbatten-Windsor for other descendants not styled prince or princess and royal highness. Visit .  A personal note about her faith often features in her annual Christmas Message broadcast to the Commonwealth. Upon hearing that she was Queen, legend has it that Elizabeth quoted the 118th Psalm's twenty-third line, in Latin: "A Dominum factum est illud, et est mirabile in oculis notris" -- "It is the Lord's doing, and it is marvelous in our eyes." Princess Elizabeth accompanied by her nurse in Hyde Park, London. Author Anna Whitelock wrote in The Queen’s Bed: An intimate history of Elizabeth’s court that a notable German physician, Dr Burcot, was invited to the Queen’s sick bed. The proposal was never accepted and the following year France signed the Treaty of Rome, which established the European Economic Community, the precursor to the European Union.  Just before the wedding, he was created Duke of Edinburgh and granted the style His Royal Highness.  In later life, however, the Queen Mother told biographer Tim Heald that Philip was "an English gentleman". They divorced in 1978; she did not remarry. Her achievements in exploration, the arts, and international and domestic politics were so outstanding that her period of reign has ever since been called The Golden Age of England.  On 20 March 2008, at the Church of Ireland St Patrick's Cathedral, Armagh, the Queen attended the first Maundy service held outside England and Wales.  She was baptised by the Anglican Archbishop of York, Cosmo Gordon Lang, in the private chapel of Buckingham Palace on 29 May,[c] and named Elizabeth after her mother; Alexandra after George V's mother, who had died six months earlier; and Mary after her paternal grandmother. 358–359; Lacey, pp.  Lewis was arrested, but never charged with attempted murder or treason, and sentenced to three years in jail for unlawful possession and discharge of a firearm.  In 2002, she inherited an estate worth an estimated £70 million from her mother.  A second child, Princess Anne, was born in 1950.  Welsh politicians suggested she be made Princess of Wales on her 18th birthday. 123, 154, 176; Pimlott, pp. 378–392; Roberts, pp. , In November 1999, a referendum in Australia on the future of the Australian monarchy favoured its retention in preference to an indirectly elected head of state. Under pressure from public opinion, she began to pay income tax for the first time, and Buckingham Palace was opened to the public. ; Pimlott, p. 207; Roberts, p. 82, Brandreth, p. 278; Marr, p. 126; Pimlott, p. 224; Shawcross, p. 59, Marr, pp. , In 1939, Elizabeth's parents toured Canada and the United States. " Later biographies reported Elizabeth's mother had reservations about the union initially, and teased Philip as "The Hun". Since Elizabeth rarely gives interviews, little is known of her personal feelings. She is also a descendant of Queen Victoria. On October 7 she and her husband set out on a highly successful tour of Canada and Washington, D.C. After Christmas in England she and the duke set out in January 1952 for a tour of Australia and New Zealand, but en route, at Sagana, Kenya, news reached them of the king’s death on February 6, 1952. Marten, afterward provost of Eton College, and had instruction from visiting teachers in music and languages. 558–559; Roberts, p. 94; Shawcross, p. 204, Bradford, p. 229; Lacey, pp. The queen seemed increasingly aware of the modern role of the monarchy, allowing, for example, the televising of the royal family’s domestic life in 1970 and condoning the formal dissolution of her sister’s marriage in 1978.  She and the Duke of Edinburgh moved into Buckingham Palace. She has reigned as a constitutional monarch through major political changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, accession of the United Kingdom to the European Communities, Brexit, Canadian patriation, and the decolonisation of Africa.  A Girl Guides company, the 1st Buckingham Palace Company, was formed specifically so she could socialise with girls her own age. In 1961 she made the first royal British tour of the Indian subcontinent in 50 years, and she was also the first reigning British monarch to visit South America (in 1968) and the Persian Gulf countries (in 1979). Visiting the Royal Residences. " Before her tour through parts of Quebec in 1964, the press reported extremists within the Quebec separatist movement were plotting Elizabeth's assassination. The children remained in Britain. Visit . Famous speeches of Queen Elizabeth I of England Here is a list of famous speeches given by Queen Elizabeth I of England during her life time. Philip suggested House of Edinburgh, after his ducal title.  In 1940, the 14-year-old Elizabeth made her first radio broadcast during the BBC's Children's Hour, addressing other children who had been evacuated from the cities. This was rejected by their mother, who declared, "The children won't go without me. Royal Family. This means that, while The Sovereign is Head of State, the ability to make and pass legislation resides with an elected Parliament.  From February to May 1940, they lived at Royal Lodge, Windsor, until moving to Windsor Castle, where they lived for most of the next five years. 550–551, Brandreth, p. 377; Pimlott, pp. In 1947, she became engaged to Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark, whom she had first met at the age of 13. Visiting the Royal Residences. Queen Elizabeth I of England died without issue and her closest relative that had a claim to the throne was her cousin King James VI of Scotland (1567-1625). Trudeau said in his memoirs that the Queen favoured his attempt to reform the constitution and that he was impressed by "the grace she displayed in public" and "the wisdom she showed in private". 222–226; Marr, p. 237; Pimlott, pp. 449–450; Roberts, p. 87; Shawcross, pp.  In March 2019, she opted to give up driving on public roads, largely as a consequence of a car crash involving her husband two months beforehand. In 1947 she married Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, a former prince of Greece and Denmark, with whom she has four children: Charles, Prince of Wales; Anne, Princess Royal; Prince Andrew, Duke of York; and Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex.  The ceremony in Westminster Abbey, with the exception of the anointing and communion, was televised for the first time. Princess Elizabeth was christened in a lace gown originally worn by Queen Elizabeth I. Her sister and mother died in February and March respectively, and the media speculated whether the Jubilee would be a success or a failure. , From Elizabeth's birth onwards, the British Empire continued its transformation into the Commonwealth of Nations. Queen Elizabeth II riding Balmoral Fern, a 14-year-old Fell pony, over the weekend. Elizabeth was born in Mayfair, London, as the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York (later King George VI and Queen Elizabeth). The Duke complained, "I am the only man in the country not allowed to give his name to his own children.  Throughout her reign, the Queen has made hundreds of state visits to other countries and tours of the Commonwealth; she is the most widely travelled head of state. The Royal Train Tour. Queen Elizabeth I of England (1533-1603; reign as Queen 1558-1603) was a child of King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, and remains one of the most famous English monarchs. 256–260; Roberts, p. 84, Brandreth, p. 374; Pimlott, pp. Queen Elizabeth II became Queen of the United Kingdom and Head of the Commonwealth on 6th February 1952.  By invitation of the Irish President, Mary McAleese, she made the first state visit to the Republic of Ireland by a British monarch in May 2011. I, like so many of you, have drawn great comfort in difficult times from Christ's words and example. The Queen was on holiday with her extended family at Balmoral. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. 159–161; Pimlott, pp. , In 1991, in the wake of coalition victory in the Gulf War, the Queen became the first British monarch to address a joint meeting of the United States Congress.  In an unusually personal speech, the Queen said that any institution must expect criticism, but suggested it be done with "a touch of humour, gentleness and understanding". Queen Elizabeth has already broken records as the longest-reigning monarch, not just in Great Britain, but throughout the world. On the accession of Queen Elizabeth, her son Prince Charles became heir apparent; he was named prince of Wales on July 26, 1958, and was so invested on July 1, 1969. Queen Elizabeth, 94, and her 99-year-old husband Prince Philip are in line to get the jab early due to their age.  In 1993, Buckingham Palace called estimates of £100 million "grossly overstated". The British Monarchy is known as a constitutional monarchy. " In 1960, after the death of Queen Mary in 1953 and the resignation of Churchill in 1955, the surname Mountbatten-Windsor was adopted for Philip and Elizabeth's male-line descendants who do not carry royal titles.  In February 1945, she was appointed as an honorary second subaltern in the Auxiliary Territorial Service with the service number of 230873.  As a result, much of the public hostility evaporated. Elizabeth was the elder daughter of Prince Albert, duke of York, and his wife, Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon. Queen Elizabeth II and her husband, Prince Philip, have received their COVID-19 vaccinations, royal officials said Saturday. , Elizabeth gave birth to her first child, Prince Charles, on 14 November 1948.  On 20 April 2018, the government leaders of the Commonwealth of Nations announced that she will be succeeded by Charles as head of the Commonwealth. 503–515; see also Neil, pp. , At her Silver Jubilee in 1977, the crowds and celebrations were genuinely enthusiastic, but in the 1980s, public criticism of the royal family increased, as the personal and working lives of Elizabeth's children came under media scrutiny.  In addition to performing traditional ceremonies, she also instituted new practices.  For the London Olympics, she played herself in a short film as part of the opening ceremony, alongside Daniel Craig as James Bond. The celebrations were somewhat diminished by the deaths of Elizabeth’s mother and sister early in the year.  She was proclaimed queen throughout her realms and the royal party hastily returned to the United Kingdom. I hope also that this Jubilee year will be a time to give thanks for the great advances that have been made since 1952 and to look forward to the future with clear head and warm heart. Royal family portrait, August 22, 1951. , The Queen does not intend to abdicate, though Prince Charles is expected to take on more of her duties as the 94-year-old monarch carries out fewer public engagements. New Zealand Security Intelligence Service documents, declassified in 2018, revealed that 17-year-old Christopher John Lewis fired a shot with a .22 rifle from the fifth floor of a building overlooking the parade, but missed. Marten, afterward provost of Eton College, and had instruction from visiting teachers in music and languages. The England inherited by Elizabeth in 1558 was deeply divided.  During her visit to New York, which followed a tour of Canada, she officially opened a memorial garden for British victims of the September 11 attacks. In late 16th-century England, Queen Elizabeth was a Protestant royal who faced perpetual threats to her life and reign. 129–132, Hardman, p. 81; Lacey, p. 307; Pimlott, pp. , From 21 April 1944 until her accession, Elizabeth's arms consisted of a lozenge bearing the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom differenced with a label of three points argent, the centre point bearing a Tudor rose and the first and third a cross of St George. 84–86, Bond, p. 97; Bradford, p. 189; Pimlott, pp. On 3 March 2013, Elizabeth was admitted to King Edward VII's Hospital as a precaution after developing symptoms of gastroenteritis. The marriage took place in Westminster Abbey on November 20, 1947. First comes Her Majesty the Queen, the star atop the royal family tree holding the highest level of the hierarchy. Queen Elizabeth II has been forced to cancel her involvement in vital royal duties because of the devastating impact of coronavirus on the nation. When she toured Canada and visited President Harry S. Truman in Washington, D.C., in October 1951, her private secretary, Martin Charteris, carried a draft accession declaration in case the King died while she was on tour. 160–163; Hardman, pp. When she became queen in 1558, she was twenty-five years old, a survivor of scandal and danger, and considered illegitimate by most Europeans. 175–176; Pimlott, pp. , During the 1981 Trooping the Colour ceremony, six weeks before the wedding of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer, six shots were fired at the Queen from close range as she rode down The Mall, London, on her horse, Burmese.  Marion Crawford wrote, "Some of the King's advisors did not think him good enough for her. Although the Queen formally dismissed him, and the international community applied sanctions against Rhodesia, his regime survived for over a decade. And the King will never leave. Elizabeth is known to favour simplicity in court life and is also known to take a serious and informed interest in government business, aside from the traditional and ceremonial duties.  On 4 April 2013, she received an honorary BAFTA for her patronage of the film industry and was called "the most memorable Bond girl yet" at the award ceremony. , The Royal Collection, which includes thousands of historic works of art and the British Crown Jewels, is not owned by the Queen personally but is held in trust, as are her official residences, such as Buckingham Palace and Windsor Castle, and the Duchy of Lancaster, a property portfolio valued at £472 million in 2015.  In 1961 she toured Cyprus, India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Iran. The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall visit Gloucestershire Royal Hospital's COVID-19 Vaccination Hub. In 2015 she surpassed Victoria to become the longest-reigning monarch in British history. Privately, she became a keen horsewoman; she keeps racehorses, frequently attends races, and periodically visits the Kentucky stud farms in the United States. 169–172, Brandreth, pp. , Though generally healthy throughout her life, in 2003 the Queen had keyhole surgery on both knees. 119, 126, 135, Letters Patent, 22 October 1948; Hoey, pp.  As Britain's ties to its former empire weakened, the British government sought entry to the European Community, a goal it achieved in 1973. , Elizabeth addressed the UN General Assembly for a second time in 2010, again in her capacity as Queen of all Commonwealth realms and Head of the Commonwealth.  She "looked tearful" as her parents departed. Elizabeth's mother Jacquetta was the daughter of a Count and a descendant of Simon de Montfort and his wife Eleanor, the daughter of England's King John.Jacquetta was the wealthy and childless widow of the Duke of Bedford, brother of Henry V, when she married Sir Richard Woodville. Nicknamed Gloriana, and reigning for nearly fifty years, Queen Elizabeth is important in British history. Born third in the line of succession, Elizabeth became the presumptive heir to the throne in 1936, following the abdication of her uncle Edward VIII and the ascension of her father, George VI.  She later became the longest-reigning current monarch and the longest-serving current head of state following the death of King Bhumibol of Thailand on 13 October 2016, and the oldest current head of state on the resignation of Robert Mugabe on 21 November 2017. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica.  Referendums in Tuvalu in 2008 and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines in 2009 both rejected proposals to become republics. , In August 1997, a year after the divorce, Diana was killed in a car crash in Paris. As a constitutional monarch, she has not expressed her own political opinions in a public forum. , Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms since 1952, Note: Within parentheses, the year when inducted into the Order, *From marriage to husband's death ^From marriage to accession as Queen. Elizabeth’s first grandchild (Princess Anne’s son) was born on November 15, 1977. She was also called Good Queen Bess or the Virgin Queen or Gloriana. In late 16th-century England, Queen Elizabeth was a Protestant royal who faced perpetual threats to her life and reign.  Later, she was enrolled as a Sea Ranger. , Amid preparations for the coronation, Princess Margaret told her sister she wished to marry Peter Townsend, a divorcé‚ 16 years Margaret's senior, with two sons from his previous marriage. The separation and later divorce (1996) of Charles and the immensely popular Diana further eroded support for the royal family, which was viewed by some as antiquated and unfeeling. In 1992, a year that Elizabeth referred to as the royal family’s annus horribilis, Prince Charles and his wife, Diana, princess of Wales, separated, as did Prince Andrew and his wife, Sarah, duchess of York.  Thatcher's biographer, John Campbell, claimed "the report was a piece of journalistic mischief-making". She was a Protestant queen taking over a Catholic country; it would certainly be a … She is head of the British Royal Family, has 4 children, 8 grandchildren and 8 great-grandchildren, and is 94 years, 8 months, and 23 days old.. She is the 32nd great-granddaughter of King Alfred the Great who was the first effective King of England 871-899. In October 2006, she missed the opening of the new Emirates Stadium because of a strained back muscle that had been troubling her since the summer. She returned to Buckingham Palace the following day. , Elizabeth's only sibling, Princess Margaret, was born in 1930.  Criticism was focused on the institution of the monarchy itself and the Queen's wider family rather than her own behaviour and actions. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? The Royal Train Tour.  She trained as a driver and mechanic and was given the rank of honorary junior commander (female equivalent of captain at the time) five months later. This is kind of a no-brainer since Brits love tea so much and Queen Elizabeth II rules all Brits!  On a visit to Ghana the same year, she dismissed fears for her safety, even though her host, President Kwame Nkrumah, who had replaced her as head of state, was a target for assassins. If her parents had had a later son, he would have been heir apparent and above her in the line of succession, which was determined by male-preference primogeniture at the time.  After the trauma of the Second World War, it was a time of hope, a period of progress and achievement heralding a "new Elizabethan age".  Because Britain had not yet completely recovered from the devastation of the war, Elizabeth required ration coupons to buy the material for her gown, which was designed by Norman Hartnell. On September 9, 2015, she surpassed Victoria’s record reign of 63 years and 216 days.  In 1980, Canadian politicians sent to London to discuss the patriation of the Canadian constitution found the Queen "better informed ... than any of the British politicians or bureaucrats".  In the broadcast, she expressed admiration for Diana and her feelings "as a grandmother" for the two princes. In this undated photo, Queen Elizabeth II records her annual Christmas broadcast in Windsor Castle, Berkshire, England.  Her main leisure interests include equestrianism and dogs, especially her Pembroke Welsh Corgis. " Newspaper editor Donald Trelford wrote in The Observer of 21 September 1986: "The royal soap opera has now reached such a pitch of public interest that the boundary between fact and fiction has been lost sight of ... it is not just that some papers don't check their facts or accept denials: they don't care if the stories are true or not."  Aside from her official religious role as Supreme Governor of the established Church of England, she is a member of that church and also of the national Church of Scotland. Diana's two sons by Charles—Princes William and Harry—wanted to attend church and so the Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh took them that morning. 88–89; Shawcross, p. 178, Elizabeth to her staff, quoted in Shawcross, p. 178, Pimlott, pp. The main focus is the endless attempts by her council to marry her off, the Catholic hatred of her and her romance … Two years into his sentence, he attempted to escape a psychiatric hospital in order to assassinate Charles, who was visiting the country with Diana and their son Prince William. Popularly known as the Virgin Queen, her 45 years of reign marked a … Elizabeth married her distant cousin Philip Mountbatten and had four children: Prince Charles (heir apparent), Princess Anne, Prince Andrew, and Prince Edward. , During her grandfather's reign, Elizabeth was third in the line of succession to the British throne, behind her uncle Edward and her father. Although The Sovereign no longer has a political or executive role, he or How The Queen and Members of The Royal Family celebrate . Elizabeth Tudor is considered by many to be the greatest monarch in English history. The first three months of her reign, the period of full mourning for her father, were passed in comparative seclusion.  Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margaret's childhood years entitled The Little Princesses in 1950, much to the dismay of the royal family. Her Majesty gave birth to Andrew Albert Christian Edward—or as we know him, Prince Andrew, Duke of York—at Buckingham Palace on February 19, 1960 . In 2012 Elizabeth celebrated her “Diamond Jubilee,” marking 60 years on the throne. On the same tour, she opened the 23rd Canadian Parliament, becoming the first monarch of Canada to open a parliamentary session. Her birth and she became queen elizabeth of england first British monarch to reach a Sapphire Jubilee a 14-year-old pony... 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